Tag Archives: Internet Trends

Considering the impact of virtual gacha

Gacha machines have been spreading like wildfire through Second Life in the past couple years and they’re bringing a number of changes to the world. In fact, they’re so ubiquitous now that maybe we’re getting close to “Peak Gacha”. I think through my fingers sometimes, so let’s consider the impact they’ve had.

Trailer Park at Gachatopia

What are gacha?

Gacha originated as a type of toy vending machine in Japan that spread into virtual worlds. You can learn more about that history here. The word “gacha” is used in SL to describe both the machines and the items they vend, but for clarity I’ll only use it for the machines. Also, you might see the plural as either “gacha” or “gachas”.

In SL, gacha are chance-based vending machines. A typical machine will have several items — perhaps a themed collection or different colors of the same thing — as well as one or two rare items (a desirable color, extra detail, combination set, etc).  The machine is scripted to give common items more frequently than rare. With the price per play quite low, about 10-40 cents, playing several times to get the item you want doesn’t seem like much of an expense. The item you receive would sell individually for a significantly higher price.

Though a lot of them sell silly knicknacks and accessories, a gacha machine can vend anything. Below are a few examples from the March appearance of The Arcade, a quarterly gacha event. Decor, apparel, collectibles, even everything you would need to build a Tuscan hideaway (click image to see a zoomable version on Flickr):

Gacha selections from 3/15 The Arcade

The items can be given away or resold.

This is more radical than it sounds and key to understanding the appeal of gacha. Products sold in SL can have different rights conveyed to the buyer. Here are four possible permission settings:

  • Full permissions: The buyer can copy, modify, and transfer the item to someone else. This is most often seen in components for building and making apparel. For example, a mesh artist will sell a “full perm” version of a table, which the buyer can retexture and resell.
  • Copy only: Very common. The buyer cannot change or give/resell the item, but can make copies. A chair might be sold this way, allowing you to place as many as you wish without buying them individually.
  • Copy/Modify: Common. This setting allows the buyer to make changes to the product and copy it, but not give or sell it to another person. A pair of boots might be sold this way, along with the suggestion to save a copy before altering the size or texture.
  • Transfer: Previously rare. This made gacha items unusual when they were introduced and it’s why they are spreading in the manner we see today.

Generally if you want to give a gift of a particular item to another person in SL, you have to hope that the store offers a gift option or a has a vending machine specifically for gifts, or that the item you want is listed in the SL Marketplace. You enter the name of the other person’s avatar, pay, and the product is sent directly to that person. While this might be great for surprise gifts (I love surprise gifts, hint hint… wait, was that too obvious?), it’s not really a nice gifting experience. Searching for a transferable item is much harder and your choices are very limited.

Gacha provide giftable items easily and inexpensively. I keep a folder in my SL inventory called “Gifts”, to share some happiness or show appreciation. These are little things I’ve picked up over the years that have transfer rights; some are freebies, others are hunt gifts, but now the majority of them are gacha items. Also, if my Kay avatar gets an item from a gacha that is cuter or more punk than she would wear, I can give it to one of my alts. (In SL, every avatar is a separate account and you cannot share items between them, even if one person owns several accounts.)

The ability to resell items made gacha a radical element in the SL economy.

Long ago, stretching into the second wave years of SL (2005-2007ish), the least expensive way to buy furniture and other items was to search for a yard sale. Plenty of items had transfer permissions. Yard sales were usually just plots of land with stuff scattered around; buy an item for a few L$ and it was yours. Sometimes you’d find freebies being resold for a profit, but the profit was small. As technology advanced and creating high quality products required more skill, the atmosphere changed. Transfer rights were removed from most products and yard sales evaporated. You could still find some low price, generally low quality items alongside freebies, but a yard sale couldn’t generate enough income to justify the space anymore.

Gacha Alley

In SL now there are regions devoted to the resale of gacha items, like Gacha Alley above and Gachatopia at the top of this post. Think of them as virtual flea markets, where resellers rent a table or storefront for their ever-changing arrays. Some of the resellers have themed their stores, arranging items from different vendors and events that fit a certain category, such as a toy store for kids or a pet store. Some put up signs showing the range of items that were offered in a machine, along with numbers of how many of each they have available. This has turned into a small business opportunity for some resellers; not unlike flea markets in the physical world, you’ll find semi-professional resellers alongside people simply trying to make a small profit from their extra stuff. And, as a new business opportunity appears, so do scams: I’ve heard of a few people who set up tables at pop-up yard sales only to have all of their items suddenly returned as the organizer vanished with their rent payments for the month.

Gacha reseller pet shop

At a resale location, you might pay a small markup over the original gacha price but there is no risk of getting an item you didn’t want. Rare items have a more substantial markup, as do boxes where a reseller has assembled a full collection. It reminds me of vibrant marketplaces in MMORPGs I’ve played, where some items can be sold player-to-player but others cannot. Rare drops or items in high demand sell for higher prices.

I’m seeing more and more gacha resales across the grid and in unexpected places. I’ve seen them inside stores of unrelated merchants, on the lawns of virtual homes, and in areas that have no other retail aspect (like the little flea market tucked away in a corner of Picklemoon, pictured below). Yard sales are back. Gachas have injected adrenaline into the veins of person-to-person, low-cost transactions in SL.

Hidden flea market at Picklemoon

They are hugely popular.

You can find gacha machines at special events that feature them, in the booths at fairs, at non-retail events (they might not have full vendors, yet still offer some gachas), and increasingly in retail stores. Some have one or two machines; others have areas dedicated to machines from past events and new promotions. Looking at the selection above offers some hints as to why they are so appealing. You might not need a pair of glasses with food on them, but for under 15 cents, wouldn’t they be fun for a costume party or to surprise a friend? For 20 cents or so you can get a pair of shoes which would normally retail for several times that amount.

The Arcade is so popular that techniques have developed to make the shopping experience better. You can get a HUD that pre-caches the sale images so that the scene will rez faster, there is an off-sim pirate ship that you can use as a shopping base, moving your camera onto the salesfloor instead of your whole avatar, and the organizers recently began selling early access: a limited set of 20 passes that allowed buyers onto the sim for four hours before it was open to the public. I don’t seek out many sales events but I always look through the shopping guide for The Arcade, and I usually stop in. I’ve discovered some of my favorite creators through their gacha offerings there.

Popularity is also driven by the urge to collect complete sets, which you can see in the Plushie Pals and artisan cookie jars above. You don’t have to collect them all, but you can, and people do. There are groups, mailing lists, and websites for gacha collectors. This isn’t a motivation I understand well, especially when virtual items can’t be removed from the SL servers and usually depreciate as technology improves, but it’s a considerable market. In the video below there is some discussion about the desireability of particularly rare collectible items.

There are gacha blogs, gacha forum threads, and live gacha discussions. There is a subscription service that provides virtual listings for buyers and sellers to make it easier for them to connect. Designing Worlds produced an excellent show a couple weeks ago covering the SL gacha phenomenon.

DW266 – Gachas in Second Life from Richard Elen on Vimeo.

Are there other impacts?

There’s a quote in the video above, a creator tells a yard sale operator that “yard sales are killing us.” I wonder if that’s true. Now that resale mechanisms have become more standardized and sophisticated, I suspect that the growth of initial gacha purchases has slowed or stagnated despite greater interest. However, merchants get longer life from their gacha items by continuing to carry the machines at their stores after events are finished. There is a conversation later in the video about how gacha might be hurting creators who don’t participate in the events. I think it’s like other marketing processes in SL — themed events, weekly sales, hunts, holiday areas — a lot of work to participate, but powerful for attracting new customers. There isn’t a world where you can plop a store in the middle of nowhere and expect it to be a success without repeated advertising/marketing.

Gacha items are more like things I buy in the physical world. I only get one copy but I can use or dispose of it as I choose.  That means that the items have value; I might have to sell some at a discount, but if I really needed L$, I could put out some tables and offer all my old gacha items. That’s a subtle shift in how I think about my digital property.

I’m not thrilled about yard sales turning up everywhere, however. That’s purely personal; specific resale regions are fine, but seeing piles of clutter where I don’t expect them reminds me of when I played the MMORPG Perfect World International. Players could set up their own resale stores in the main city. Each one looked like a hovering cat (or later, a red bull). The result was that the main city was laggy and jammed with cat shops.


As I said at the top of this post, I think we might be seeing the peak of the gacha craze. They were introduced into SL about three years ago, were very popular in 2014, but I’ve heard others who dislike the yard sales, calling them “cheap” and “trashy”. If that attitude grows, it could shape the perception of gacha overall. It could also damage the craze if the professional resellers continue to grow, making gacha events seem like tradeshows for them rather than fun for individuals. It’s a delicate balance but it’s awfully interesting to observe.


Posted by on March 27, 2015 in Gaming


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Tech trends for 2015

Interested in what’s next or simply trying to keep up with impressive-sounding jargon? I’ve compiled a few lists of tech trends that are expected to be hot this year. I agree with some of them, for better or worse, and others are giving me food for thought as I consider the human implications. Click the links for more details.

Webbmedia Group (the presentation below is worth watching at full-screen, but a summary list of the key points from by Amy Webb in the Harvard Business Review  includes deep learning, smart virtual personal assistants, “It’s like Uber for ____”, oversight for algorithms, data privacy, and block chain technology):


10 Strategic Technology Trends from Gartner:

  1. Computing everywhere
  2. The Internet of Things (IoT)
  3. 3D printing
  4. Advanced, pervasive, invisible analytics
  5. Context-rich systems
  6. Smart machines
  7. Cloud/client architecture
  8. Software-defined infrastructure and applications
  9. Web-scale IT
  10. Risk-based security and self-protection

Tech Trends for 2015 from frog design:

  • Move over “step counters”
  • Ambient intelligence knows what’s up
  • Nano particles diagnose from the inside out
  • The emergence of the casual programmer
  • Eat your technologies
  • The Internet of food goes online
  • Mobilizing the next 4 billion
  • Personal darknets in the spotlight
  • 4D printing assembles itself
  • Digital currency replaces legal tender
  • The rise of cognitive behavioral therapy
  • Textiles get techy
  • Adaptive education personalizes learning
  • Achievement unlocked: you’re hired!
  • Micro-farming networks go mainstream

 The Tech That Will Dominate 2015, from Tim Bajarin at PC Magazine:

  • Apple enhances product resolution and invades enterprise market
  • Increased vigilance against security breaches
  • Tablets as personal TVs
  • Streaming media everywhere
  • Better battery life
  • New MacBook Air
  • Domestic robots
  • Low-end tablets replacing other gadgets
  • Apple Watch more successful that expected
  • Easier ways to design/create 3D products
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Posted by on January 7, 2015 in Digital Devices, In the News, Research


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Boom-era WIRED magazines, part 2

My anthropological thoughts are centered around medical anthro this week (inspired by thought-provoking pieces like Race and the immuno-logics of Ebola response in West Africa from Somatosphere), so you’ll just get another retrofuturist look at the old WIRED magazines I saved from my basement flood.  This time, June 1997:


  •  pg 2: a Philips Magnavox ad – “From Hollywood to Main Street, it’s being heralded as the beginning of a home entertainment revolution. It’s called DVD Video.”
  • pg 22: a Digital Equipment Corporation ad featuring Jeff Bezos (looking chubby and with quite a bit of hair), the CEO and founder of, “the world’s largest, most prosperous on-line bookstore.”
  • pg 42: a blurb mentioning that two nominations for the Pulitzer Prize were disqualified for being digital, as the prize was limited to print sources only. The rules wouldn’t change completely for another eleven years after this issue.
  • pg 65: an ad for an Olympus digital camera that shoots in 640×480 resolution, holds up to 80 standard photos (lower resolution), and costs a mere $599.
  • pg 67: a short profile of Bruce Schneier and his Blowfish cryptography algorithm. 17 years later, his blog Schneier on Security remains a must-read.
  • pg 109-110: a button-pushing opinion piece by Nathan Myhrvold, CTO of Microsoft at the time, about cloning, with some controversial thoughts like, “If humans have a right to reproduce, what right does society have to limit the means?”, “Fear of clones is just another form of racism”, and “The most upsetting possibility in human cloning isn’t superwarriors or dictators. It’s that rich people with big egos will clone themselves. … So what?”
  • pg 114 and beyond: 101 Ways to Save Apple. How amusing to read this while some are in iPhone 6 delirium, especially when the very first item in the list is, “Admit it. You’re out of the hardware game.” Some of the tips were actually on point, suggesting that Apple exploit their talents at UI, get a better ad agency, and focus on better case design. Maybe they took the challenge of #31 to heart, though they can’t meet the suggested price point, “Build a PDA for less than $250 that actually does something: a) cellular email, b) 56-channel TV, c) Internet phone.”
  • pg 124-129: preview of big summer f/x movies: Spawn, Titanic, Batman & Robin, Men in Black, and Anaconda.
  • pg 138 and beyond: a couple of related articles about the increasing spread of the Internet in China (and concern about what would happen in Hong Kong after it reverted to Chinese control that month). I worked on an attempted ISP expansion into China a few years after this and many of the issues in the article — government control, bureaucracy, piracy — were stumbling blocks for us, and others who followed.
  • pg 153: a short review of 3 speech-to-text programs. The author’s favorite retailed between $99-$1695 (based on vocabulary size).
  • pg 158: on the music review page, a review of Lamb’s debut album, which featured what remains one of my favorite songs:
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Posted by on September 23, 2014 in Side Topics


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Looking back on boom-era WIRED magazines, part 1

In the aftermath of our basement flood last month, we cleaned out all of the storage boxes we rarely opened in six years of living in this house.  Some of my boxes had been unopened much longer and I was surprised to find a pile of WIRED magazines from 1996-1999, still in excellent condition. One with a scratch and sniff cover is still in the mailing plastic.


Since I’ve got a bit of a cold today, I thought it might be interesting to open one like a time capsule and see what I found.*  I started with the issue from November 1996 with Burning Man on the cover.  At the time this issue came out, I was working for an Internet start-up and freelancing as a website manager/editor; WIRED was crucial to me for stay current. It helped me decide what skills to pick up next and what jargon to spout. Here’s some of what I found inside today:

  • before the Table of Contents: four glossy, poster-like pages promoting a story about Suck with the words, “The Web Dream is what smart kids across America are dreaming. Here’s a cheap and easy-to-use medium that lets anyone seize the attention of the planet… It’ll hardly cost a dime. and you might get rich. Fuck waiting in line for your turn. Piss in the milk of the oligarchy. Take the money… then run like hell.”  How I loved Suck. It was dead less than five years after this issue. But the text nails the attitude of those of us who were hustling to go from hopeless slackers to new media luminaries, and it’s still the attitude of those who seek fame in the latest digital media, be it YouTube or Twitter or Vine and beyond.
  • pg 42: a blurb about companies fighting to take control of the computer desktop, with push technology like PointCast featured. It sounded cool then, but nobody really wanted it.  Now? Windows 8 has an interface that pulls in stories and content from sites and categories you choose. With apps, widgets, and notification settings, we can get a lot of of content pushed to our mobile devices. I think Facebook has become the information desktop for a wide swath of users, aggregating content that is interesting to them or their friends.
  • pg 45: I’ve been glossing over all the outdated PC ads, but this Toshiba Infinia ad proudly announces that their Pentium PC has “a huge 3.0GB hard drive”.
  • pg 46: a blurb about AOL being sued by the NBA for posting scores of basketball games in progress. The argument was that the scores were intellectual property that television stations paid large amounts of money to license, while AOL claimed that reporting the scores was journalism.  It may seem natural to ask or type a few keywords to check scores now, but that was one of many things that had to be fought out.
  • pg 47: a blurb about WebTV. Putting web content on the TV screen is still a relevant consideration — I use my Chromecast every few days — but creating an interface and controls for the web on TV never really worked.  Using the keyboard at some hotels that still offer LodgeNet is a painful reminder of the WebTV furor.
  • pg. 48: analysis of the hardware of the brand-new Nintendo 64.
  • pg. 64: in the Fetish column (gear for early adopters, basically), a glowing promotion for the Motorola StarTac cellular phone, retailing for $1000-2000.
  • pg 68: an ad for a webcam that could broadcast in color.
  • pgs 119-120: an ad for the first Resident Evil game
  • pg 160: a short essay about web memorial sites, guessing how these will become more common in the future. Ironically, the one memorial site mentioned in the piece is currently offline.
  • pg 195: the cover article by Bruce Sterling about Burning Man, which was then in its 11th year.  I’ve just seen a documentary about Burning Man and read about this year’s celebration, and it’s incredible to compare how tiny it was in 1996.
  • pg 218: in a blurb about the new DirecPC service, which offered “up to a sizzling 400 Kbps”, the writer is ecstatic about downloading a 1.5 Mb file in under a minute. Just for comparison, I’m getting 18.71 Mbps over my home WiFi right now. If I did the math correctly, that’s almost 47 times as fast as the top speed that made him giddy.

Overall, sure, it was dated, but not too bad. It was far more upbeat about how the Internet would change politics and the economic future than how things really turned out, but it was an optimistic time. Thank goodness that storage sizes and prices and Internet connectivity improved at the rate they did.

* Yep, this is a filler post, and I’ll probably do a few more for days when I’m too busy or sick.  Not the most informative or thought-provoking, but maybe some nostalgia or giggles and a last life for the magazines before they hit the recycling bin.

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Posted by on September 16, 2014 in Side Topics


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Internet trends 2013

The annual KPCB Internet Trends report is out.  It’s US-centric and doesn’t look at immersive worlds or gaming, but I think it’s important data for people who think about those topics. Consider, for example, the growth in tablets and mobile devices versus desktop/notebook — the computers usually required for virtual world use.  Or the increase in video and the “return” of voice. I know that the High Fidelity project is looking at wearables in their quest to produce “low latency avatar-to-avatar communication” and I think they’re headed in the right direction.  The KPCB report slideshow is embedded below:

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Posted by on May 30, 2013 in Uncategorized, Usage Patterns



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